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FISHINOMICS

HOW TO FILLET A FISH ???

Fillet making technique for flat and round fish is a bit different. Before you fillet a flat fish you should remove skin properly. From flat fish you will get 4 pieces of fillet: 2 from top and 2 from bottom side of the fish. From a round fish you will get 2 fillet pieces and skin shall be removed after you finish the process.

So lets start.

Fillet from flat fish

First of all the fish shall be cleaned and gutted properly. Place fish, refined from skin, on a cutting board with a tail facing towards you and make an incision with a knife tip along the back, moving knife from head to tail. Then, insert your knife between the fillets and ribs close to the head, inserting the knife at a slight angle. Hold the fish with the other hand and make small incisions, carefully separate the fillet from the ribs close to the head, then raise the separated part of the fillet, and move toward the tail, remove the fillets completely. We just made first portion of the fillet.

 

Getting the second, third and fourth fillets. Following instructions above you need to remove the filet, which is to the right of the spine. Then turn the fish to the other side and the same way make 2 more fillet portions.

Getting fillet from a round fish

Method number 1

 

The easiest way to cut fillets from a round fish, is the separation of meat from both sides of the spine. To begin, place the fish tail towards you, putting it to the side. Firmly holding the fish in the area of the abdomen, make a deep cut (spine should get bared) along the back, moving from head to tail.

 

Now separate the upper fillet (closer to you) from the head, making an incision behind the gills (don’t separate the head completely, it will be more convenient to cook fish soup - you can remove from the pan all at once). Then completely remove the fillets from the spine. To do this, the sharp end of the knife should be placed between the fillets (near the head) and ribs. Then, making the short cuts with a knife, which you need to keep parallel to the ribs, separate fillets throughout.

 

Separation of the lower fillet. Do not overturn the fish. With one hand, raise a spine, push the knife blade between the ribs and fillet in the area of the head, separate the second fillet from the head. Then, again making the short cuts with a knife remove second fillet.

 

How to remove the skin? To remove the skin, put one just separated fillet skin to the board with a tail towards you. Where before there was a tail, you need to separate the fillet from the skin approximately 1 cm to make it possible for the fingers to grab this part of the skin (or just press the skin to the board).

 

Hold the end of the skin, insert the blade of a knife between the skin and fillet at a slight angle. Doing short cuts, separate the fillet from the skin, moving from the head to the tail section. Same way separate other fillet parts from the skin.

 

 

Method number 2

 

Unlike flatfish, for round fish there is a way to get fillet to keep fish shape whole as it is.

 

Most of the fish with a round body shape are fairly simple bone system - the spine and branches, ie ribs, so bones can be quite simple removed after ripping the abdomen. Removing bones through the abdomen, we get not only the filet, but retain the shape of fish, and thus get a great blank - such fish can be stuffed with various toppings and baked under a variety of sauces, be boiled and served with dip, stewed in a spicy bouillon.

 

Thus, removal of bone in this way involves opening the fish abdomen, gutting, removing fins and separating fillet from skeleton. To remove bones it is convenient to cut the fish almost all the way to the end of the tail. Fins with massive bones can be removed one by one, using a small sharp knife, cutting the membrane, which is covering the rib and separating it from the rib (easily can be broken using fingers). For fish with soft bones such as, for example, herring, this method is not suitable - bones shall be removed by hands only to protect the integrity of meat. For small fish (such as anchovies) its even more easy - tear it with your thumb and pull out the skeleton of the abdomen.

 

Ribs are removed, only the spine is left, which must be carefully separated from the meat. For this half of the fish should be pulled to the sides as much as possible, trying not, however, damage the integrity of fish. Then you need to separate the meat from the spine with a knife, making incisions on both sides of the spine. It should be done carefully and try not to cut through the skin in the area of the back.

 

Then should separate the spine from the head, cutting it with a knife or using kitchen scissors. Disconnect the spine from the meat and separate completely, cutting from the tail. Done!

Sometimes the bones are removed through an incision along the back and stuffed fish not from the abdomen but from the back side. The finished dish looks really very special then.

How crabs are caught

Small crab-catching vessels (the average length is 35 m), are having a long sea voyage to areas of the crab fishery. Some have to go around 650 km along the Bering Sea looking for crabs. Each captain has his own strategy. Nobody knows how long time season lasts, and during this time it is necessary to do the impossible - to find crabs and ensure a decent catch. And all this in a very tough conditions. Working in Arctic waters is dangerous, but working on crab-catching vessel is, perhaps, the most dangerous, because there are no safe places on the deck.

 

 

Ways of catching crab

 

While reaching the fishing area ship captains finish their crab catching strategies planning, deckhands are ready to start putting crab cages, cabin boy prepare the lure, putting it inside bags in the cages. Each team member is looking forward to start catching crabs.

 

After getting the signal from the National Department of hunting and fishery about the beginning of the crab season, first thing to do is dropping crab cages with lure inside into the sea. On small ships number of cages does not exceed 40 units, but on some big ships the number reaches 250.

 

There are not so many different ways of catching crab. One of the ways is when the cage is set to a special pallet. Inside the cage is hanging lure, then lock the cage and throw into the sea. Rope with buoy is connected to the cage. The cages are set on the area up to 100 square kilometers, ten in one row.

 

Another way is radio-catch. Several ships are united into alliance and go towards different points, placing cages. Then captains pass each other, using the radio, necessary data about crab, using code words, without naming names of ships and coordinates.

 

After a while, fishermen lift up cages, but first they must grab them. To do this, fishermen throw anchor with a rope attached to it towards the buoy floating on the sea surface. To buoy attached the cage, which is free-floating in the sea. Catching the rope with the anchor, buoy is pulled to a lifting device and cage is lifted to the pallet. Then the cage is placed onto the pallet and catch is unloaded there too.

 

An important thing in crab catching process is sorting. In accordance with the law small crabs for reproduction. Male crabs which are accepted for fishing on legitimate conditions must be at least 17 cm on the shell. Sorting crabs is made on 200-kilos table that can be turned aside with a hydraulic device.

How to evaluate the fish freshness

Both live and chilled fish should have clean, tight surface. Gills color can vary from pink to dark red. The product should have a natural smell of fresh fish, with no signs of spoilage. Fresh fish is firm and elastic. When pressing with your finger t the back part the surface shall quickly get flat again.

Timeline for implementation of live fish as follows: when the water temperature in the tank from 11 to 15 ± C in autumn and winter - 48 hours, and in the spring and summer - 24 hours.

 

 

Frozen fish

 

After thawing, the surface of the fish should be clean, with natural color, no external injuries, subcutaneous fat color is bright, meat is dense, elastic and smell of fresh fish.

To determine the freshness of the fish dip it in a bowl of water - fresh fish benign when immersed in water shall drown.

 

Gills of high quality frozen fish get a bit pale and eyes sink a little. If the fish is fresh frozen, after thawing the elasticity is restored. Freshness of frozen fish can be defined as follows: put into the meat heated in boiling water knife, and then smell it. Sharp unpleasant smell means that fish is stale.

 

It’s important to know that frozen fish maintains its value only if during the sale fish is not completely thawed (temperature of the fish is not

above +2 ± C). If the fish is completely thawed, it loses its flavor, can not be stored and requires emergency treatment.

Fish OR Meat?

First of all a bit about fish

Fish helps the heart: it has 3 times less cholesterol than meat. It is extremely useful for the heart. Connection between fish and heart was found during the study of health and lifestyle of the Eskimos. They eat mostly fish and almost do not eat vegetables and fruits. And their hearts and blood vessels are excellent condition.

 

Now some more details:

 

1. Fish protein is much more useful. Despite the fact that the fish and meats contain protein composition - essential amino acids that are essential to the human body, fish has less connective layers, that’s why it absorbs easier. The average person absorbs 98% of fish protein, and 89% meat protein. Therefore, one may wonder why overload your body with heavy food? Fish and seafood have a high nutritional value not only because of the protein, but also due to the high content of fatty acids Omega-3 and Omega-6 in fatty fish (such as salmon, salmon, rainbow trout, mackerel, herring, tuna, sardines).

 

2. Fish gives more value for the body. Portion of fish digests 1,5-2 times faster than the meat portion. Also fatty acids, which fish and seafood contains, speed up metabolism. Moreover, if the dietary meat - it is usually only chicken breast, the variety of dietary fish is much more diversified, the taste is richer and more useful. For example, a classic recipe - seafood soup will impress even the most sophisticated gourmets.

 

3. Fish is quicker and easier to prepare. If you need ten minutes to make a healthy and nutritious breakfast, you can make a salad with canned tuna. And when expecting guests – just put the fillet of sea fish on the grill, or sprinkle with lemon juice and put to bake in foil.

 

4. Fish is good for diabetics. They usually have a high probability of heart disease and stroke, and fish helps to prevent this. A diet that includes foods with a small amount of fat (e.g. fish) helps to control diabetes. Three "fish" dinners a week or 30 grams of fish per day reduces the risk of heart attack by 50%. Japanese and Eskimos who regularly eat fish, less suffer from cardiovascular diseases. Fish also beneficial for the brain and nerve cells, contributing to their regeneration. Fish as well as apples, decreases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. There are not so much foods in the world which is rich in useful for the heart and blood vessels omega-3 fatty acids and all essential amino acids. In fish, there is plenty if this nutrients, as well as vitamins A, D, E, iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, zinc and selenium.

 

5. Fish is useful for bones. Large amounts of calcium in the diet helps to make bones healthy and strong. This is especially important for women: after menopause the risk of osteoporosis - the disease of thins bones, increases significantly.

 

6. Fish lovers say that fish simply tastes better. And if with this fact is still possible to argue, the previous facts make you start thinking about fish benefits.

 

Finally, the benefits of fish are used by nutritionists around the world for many years. Experts believe that this non-fat product {even fattest fish has only 25-30% fat} also very easy to digest: human body digests fish protein for only 1.5-2 hours. 100 g. of beef contains 19% protein, 9.5% fat, 0.4% carbohydrates, 166 calories. 100 g. of river fish contains around 15.9% protein, 2.5% fat, 0.1% carbohydrate, calorie content is only 91.

 

Also, doctors recommend fish to people with a sick stomach and problems with thyroid gland.

Interesting facts about norwegian fish and seafood

Red King Crab

A Red King Crab can grow a leg span of 1.8 meters.

 

This huge arthropod was named after the color it turns when it is cooked rather than the color of a living animal.

 

A live Red King Crab is more Burgundy in color.

 

The Red King Crab is endemic to the Bering Sea – a sea located between Russia and Alaska, USA.

 

This large crustacean was introduced artificially by the Soviet Union into the Murmansk Fjord, Barents Sea, during the 1960s to provide new, valuable catch for Soviet fishermen.

 

Red King Crabs in the Barents Sea have become invasive species and its population is increasing tremendously.

 

This is causing great concern to local environmentalists and local fishermen as the crab eats everything it comes across and is spreading very rapidly.

 

This king crab species is the most coveted of the commercially-sold king crabs worldwide.

 

The Red King Crab is the most expensive per unit weight.

 

This commercially important marine animal is most commonly caught in the Bering Sea and Norton Sound, Alaska.

 

It is one of the most preferred crabs for consumption but it is extremely difficult to catch.

 

The Red King Crabs are declining steadily in their native Far East coastal waters for unclear reasons.

 

Since its introduction it has spread westwards along the Norwegian coast and also northwards, having reached the island group of Svalbard.

 

The species keeps on advancing southwards along the coast of Norway and some scientists think they are advancing at about 50 km a year.

 

Despite the rapid growing population of Red King Crabs, only around 3 hundreds of Norwegian fishermen are allowed to catch it.

 

Alaskan crab fishing is very dangerous, and the fatality rate among the fishermen is much more that the fatality rate of the average worker.

Why Deep-sea Redfish is red?

As you travel from surface waters to deeper waters, the quantity of light changes; it decreases with depth. The quality of light also varies with depth. Sunlight contains all of the colors of our visible spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet). These colors combined together appear white.

 

Red light has the longest wavelength and, therefore, the least amount of energy in the visible spectrum. Wavelength decreases and energy increases as you move from red to violet light across the spectrum in the following order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

As light wavelength increases from red to blue light, so does the ability of light to penetrate water. Blue light penetrates best, green light is second, yellow light is third, followed by orange light and red light. Red light is quickly filtered from water as depth increases.

 

All objects that are not transparent or translucent either absorb or reflect nearly all of the light that strikes them. When struck by white light (containing all colors), a red fish reflects red light and absorbs all other colors. Likewise, grass reflects green light and absorbs all other colors. White objects appear white because they reflect all colors of light in the visible spectrum. Black objects appear black because they absorb all colors of light.

 

Now consider that red fish. If a red fish is swimming at the surface of the ocean, it appears red because it reflects red light. However, the deeper you and the fish go, the less red the fish will appear, because there is less and less red light to reflect off of the fish. At 100 meters, red light does not penetrate and, at this depth, a red fish is difficult, if not impossible to see. Instead, the fish appears blackish because there is no red light to reflect at that depth and the fish absorbs all other wavelengths of color.

 

In the twilight zone, there are numerous animals that are black or red. At depth, these animals are not visible. The black animals absorb all colors of light available and the red animals appear black as well; there is no red light to reflect and their bodies absorb all other available wavelengths of light. Thus red and black animals predominate.

 

Since the color blue penetrates best in water, there simply are not that many blue animals in the midwater regions of the ocean; their entire bodies would reflect the blue light and they would be highly visible to predators.

Halibut

It is the largest of all the flatfishes.

 

It only lies on its left side.

 

Young fish are paler and old fish are almost black (you can guess their age by their color).

 

Females are larger than males, averaging about 45 kg to 70 kg while males weight from 25 to 45 kilos.

 

Fishermen have reported finding in halibut a variety of indigestible objects such as pieces of wood and iron.

 

The largest halibut eat seabirds.

 

The smallest naturally hatched Atlantic halibut ever seen was 13.5 mm long.

Snow crab

The legal size for harvesting of a snow crab is 9.5 centimeters in carapace length. This allows for only the male snow crabs to be legally harvested.  This is to help prevent overharvesting and extinction of the species.

 

Snow crabs are only harvested in three general areas, including the coast of Alaska, coast of Japan, and the Atlantic Coast of Canada and Maine.

 

The snow crab is also known as the "Queen Crab" because of the length of their legs, which is comparable to (but smaller than) the King Crab.

 

Snow crabs have blue circulatory fluid known as hemolymph.  This is due to the copper component that is associated with the oxygen found within it.

 

The first commercial snow crab business was created in Canada around 1965.

 

Females are picky when it comes down to who is going to be their mate.  Some lose their life in the battle of resisting a mate.

 

Snow crab is a common ingredient found in sushi.

 

Chionoecetes opilio has the capability of growing a lost limb back, but only if it is still in its molting process.

 

The male gender of snow crabs grows one larger claw, which serves as a way to attract the female gender.

Sea Urchin

Size of sea urchins depends on the species. They usually have 3 to 7,6 in cm diameter.

 

Sea urchins have globe-like shape of the body that is covered with large number of long spines. Bony plates form shell that provides protection for the soft inner parts.

 

Body of sea urchins has radial symmetry. That means that each sea urchin can be divided in five equal parts.

Color of sea urchins depends on the species. Majority of species are black, brown, purple, red or green in color.

Sea urchins have 5 rows of paired tube feet on the bottom side of the body. They end with suckers which facilitate adhesion to rocks, hunt and movement on the ocean floor.

 

Sea urchins have claw-like structures on the surface of the body, scattered among the spines. They are known as pedicellariae and their main purpose is protection against predators. Besides that, they are used for food collection and for the removal of the objects attached to the body.

Certain species of sea urchins (such as flower urchin) have spikes filled with venom.

Sea urchin has special type of mouth, called "Aristotle's lantern". Mouth is equipped with five sharp teeth that are able to drill a hole in the rock.

Sea urchins are omnivores (they eat both plants and animals). Sea weed, algae, plankton and decaying organic matter are usually on the menu of sea urchins.

 

Even though sea urchins have spines, they have a lot of predators. Main enemies of sea urchins are otters, sea birds, fish, crabs, sunflower stars and humans.

 

Mating season of sea urchins takes place in the spring.

Just like many other sea creatures, sea urchins reproduce by releasing eggs and sperm cells in the water. This type of reproduction is called external fertilization.

 

Fertilized egg undergoes larval stage before it becomes adult sea urchin. During the larval stage, sea urchin swims with other tiny animals as a part of zooplankton.

 

Most species of sea urchins live up to 30 years.

Red sea urchin has the longest lifespan on Earth. It can survive up to 200 years in the wild.

Cod

Cod produce a natural anti-freeze that allows them to cruise the icy northern oceans.

 

Cod has low fat content.

 

Cod is high in Vitamin A, Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids

 

Cod are omnivorous, swimming with their mouths open they will eat anything that fits, including young cod!

 

Cod flesh is white, whiter than most other fish because its muscle tissue is not built for speed, but for quick action to catch prey. For this reason cod are usually unable to out-run trawlers.

 

For a long time – particularly in England, the word fish was synonymous with cod.

 

Cod are believed to have existed as the species we know today for about 120 million years.

 

A female cod about a metre long can produce 3 million eggs in a spawning.

 

A cod surviving to a year old has virtually no predators from then onwards, other than man.

 

Norwegian scientists attract young cod to feeding sites by playing recordings of tuba music underwater.

 

The Portuguese claim to have 365 ways of preparing dried salt cod (bacalhau) one for each day of the year.

 

You can tell the age of a Cod Fish from the two white earstones in the skull (known as ‘otoliths’), these stones have annual growth rings that can be counted (much like the rings on a tree).

 

Cod are cannibals and will eat other cod fish.

 

 

Cod was the original fish of choice used in th eMcDonald’s Filet-O-Fish burger.

 

Codfish live to an average age of 15 years.

 

Approximately 10% of the world’s fish catch is cod.

 

Larger codfish are often observed playing a dominate role over smaller fish. Those with a higher rank in the hierarchy are more likely to defend their territory.